Archive for the 'Substitutions' Category

Recipe: Salt: types and uses

|June 11, 2011|read comments (0)
Author: Mama's Kitchen

Salt: types and uses

Most salt is mined from deposits left by salt lakes around the world which have dried up over the past millenia as the earth's surface has changed. Sea salt is distilled from the ocean, a more expensive process, resulting in a heftier price.

Types of salt

Table: This is the common salt normally found on every table. It is a fine-ground, refined rock salt with some additives to keep it free-flowing. Smaller particles mean more particles per measure and more surface area than coarser grinds; thus, use about half the amount if you're substituting for coarse salt.

Coarse: Coarse refers to the grind. The jagged edges and large crystals make this a good choice for sprinkling on pretzels or corn on the cob because the edges tend to cling and the salt does not readily melt.

Iodized: Salt which has iodine (sodium iodide) added. Iodine is a mineral necessary to the body to prevent hypothyroidism and some countries actually require iodine added by law. For those who live in areas away from oceans, iodized salt is an easy way to get this necessary nutrient into the diet. Surprisingly, iodized salt contains a small amount of sugar (usually indicated as dextrose in the ingredients listing), without which the salt would turn yellow due to oxidation of the iodine.

Kosher: This is a coarser grind of salt with large, irregular crystals. It contains no additives. Kosher dietary laws strictly require as much blood as possible be removed from meat before cooking. This coarse grind performs the job admirably. It is a favorite with not only Jewish cooks, but also professional and gourmet cooks who prefer its brighter flavor and texture. When substituting for table salt, you may need more to taste since it seems less salty. The size and shape of the crystals cannot permeate the food as easily as fine grades. Coarse pickling salt can be substituted.

Celtic: This is the expensive type. It is harvested via a 2,000 year-old method of solar evaporation from the waters of the Celtic Sea marshes in Brittany, France. Its flavor is described as mellow with a salty, yet slightly sweet taste. Even more expensive and rare is fleur de sel, from the salt marshes in Gurande, which is said to form only when the wind blows from the east.

Rock: Less refined and grayish in color, this is the chunky crystal salt used in ice cream machines. This type is generally not used as an edible flavoring mixed into foods, but in cooking methods such as to bake potatoes or to encrust or embed meat, seafood or poultry for baking. Rock salt makes an impressive bed for oysters on the half shell. When using rock salt for cooking, be sure it is food-grade. Some rock salt sold for ice cream machines is not suitable for cooking.

Pickling: This fine-grained salt has no additives and is generally used in brines to pickle foods. Unlike table salt, the lack of additives will help keep the pickling liquid from clouding.

Sea: Distilled from sea waters, this form can be fine or coarsely ground. This is a less expensive version of Celtic salt. Some consider sea salt nutrionally better than rock salt because it naturally contains trace minerals, but the difference is too minute to note. It does, however, have a stronger and more interesting flavor.

Sour: Although it is not a salt, I include it here for clarity's sake. Sour salt is actually citric acid, extracted from citrus and other acidic fruits such as lemons, oranges, and pineapple. Also known as citric salt, it is used in some classic recipes such as borscht and also by some as a pseudo-salt substitute. It adds a zesty, tart flavor that can sometimes mask as a salty flavor in some dishes and gives a helpful psychological satisfaction of shaking on "salt." If it's not in the spice section of your market, check the kosher section.

Seasoned: Single or multiple herbs and spices are added to salt to make garlic salt, onion salt, and other mixes. If you are watching your salt intake, you're better off using the unsalted powdered or dried herbs and spices and controlling the salt as a separate ingredient. The main ingredient in seasoned salt is, after all, salt.

Unseasoned salt has an infinite shelf life. Seasoned salts should be kept tightly capped and used within one year. Humidity and moisture will cause salt to clump and stick together. Add about ten grains of raw rice to the shaker to absorb the moisture and keep the salt flowing freely. If you've oversalted a soup, toss in a peeled, quartered potato for 15 minutes. Salt pulls juices out of vegetables. This is a good thing for some watery vegetables like cucumbers and eggplant in some dishes, but if you want mushrooms to remain plump, add the salt at the end of cooking. MSG (monosodium glutamate), used in some Asian dishes, amplifies the natural flavor of salt, but can have a chemical reaction with salt and give off a metallic taste. If you must limit salt intake, maximize flavor by sprinkling a pinch of kosher or coarse salt on cooked meats during their resting period. Do not use table salt for pickling and canning. The additives can darken the pickles and affect fermentation. Use pickling salt for best results. Do not store salt in silver containers. The chlorine in the salt reacts negatively with the silver, causing a green discoloration. 1 tablespoon coarse or kosher salt equals 2 teaspoons table salt.

Recipe: SMOKE POINTS OF OIL

|June 11, 2011|read comments (0)
Author: Mama's Kitchen

The smoke point of fats –

Do you know what the “smoke point” of cooking oils and fats is?

Heat causes different reactions in cooking oils and fats; the hotter they get, the more they break down, causing them to begin to smoke and give off unpleasant odors. This is similar to burning; rendering it unusable because it begins to break down at the molecular level. Some oils are better than others for high-heat cooking, such as sautéing, deep-frying, etc.

A cooking oil or fats “smoke point” is the temperature at which it will begin to smoke. Having a high smoke point means that the oil or fat can withstand high heating temperatures before beginning to smoke.

Usually, oils that are vegetable-based have higher smoke points than animal-based fats like butter or lard. The exception to this is hydrogenated vegetable shortening – which has a lower smoke point than butter, and olive oil, which has a smoke point that is about equal to that of lard.

Also, since refining oils removes the impurities that can cause the oil to smoke, the more refined an oil is – the higher its smoke point. Usually it’s the lighter oils that have the highest smoke points.

Although an oil has a smoke point of XX degrees Fahrenheit or Celsius, it’s smoke point will not remain constant. The longer the oil is exposed to heat, the lower its smoke point becomes. Fresher oil has a higher smoke point than the very same oil that has been heated in a deep-fryer.

If you like to deep fry as well as cook, knowing the smoke point will save you money. Each time you deep fry, you lower the smoke point of the shortening/oil/fat irreversibly.

If your oil’s smoke point is just above 375 degrees Fahrenheit (190 degrees Celsius) (the normal deep-frying temperature), there is a very good chance that its smoke point will drop below 375 degrees Fahrenheit (190 degrees Celsius) after using it the first time. This makes it useless.

Save money by selecting one with a high smoke point:

OIL – SMOKE POINT (FAHRENHEIT)

Almond 420* F.

Avocado oil (refined) 520* F.

Butter 350* F.

Butter (Ghee) 375 – 485* F. (depending on purity)

Canola (unrefined) 225* F.
Canola (semi-refined) 350* F.
Canola (refined) 400* F.

Coconut 350* F.

Corn oil (unrefined) 320* F.
Corn oil (refined) 450* F.

Cottonseed oil 420* F.

Flaxseed oil (unrefined) 225* F.

Hazelnut oil 430* F.

Hemp seed oil 330* F.

Grapeseed oil 392 – 485* F.

Hazelnut oil 430* F.

Lard 361 – 401* F.

Macadamia nut oil 389* F.

Olive oil (unrefined) 320* F.
Olive oil (extra-virgin) 406* F.
Olive oil (virgin) 420* F.
Pumace 460* F.
Extra light 468* F.

Peanut (unrefined) 320* F.
Peanut oil (refined) 440 – 450* F.

Rapeseed oil 438* F.

Rice bran oil 490* F.

Safflower oil (unrefined) 225* F.
Safflower oil (semi refined) 320* F.
Safflower oil (refined) 450* F.

Sesame oil (unrefined) 350* F.
Sesame oil (semi refined) 450* F.
Sesame oil 410* F.

Shortening, vegetable 325* F. (emulsified/hydrogenated)
Shortening, vegetable 356 – 370* F.

Soy/soybean oil (unrefined) 320* F.
Soy/soybean oil (semi refined) 350* F.
Soy/soybean oil (refined) 450* F.

Sunflower oil (unrefined) 225* F.
Sunflower oil (semi refined) 450* F.
Sunflower oil 440* F.

Tea oil 486* F.

Walnut oil (unrefined) 320* F.
Walnut oil (semi refined) 400* F.

There are a number of factors that will decrease the smoke point of any fat:
The length of time the oil is heated
The presence of foreign properties (batters, for instance)
The presence of salt
The combination of vegetable oil in products
The number of times the oil was used
The length of time the oil is heated
How the oil was stored (exposing it to light, oxygen, temperature)

The importance of knowing the smoke point will also warn you of the flash point and fire point. Most oils reach the flash point of about 699* F. – tiny wisps of fire begin to leap from the surface of the heated oil. If the oil is heated to its fire point (700* F. for most oils), the surface will ablaze.

NEVER TRY TO EXTINGUISH A GREASE FIRE WITH WATER. THE WATER WILL SPLATTER AND SPREAD MORE QUICKLY. SMOTHER THE FLAMES WITH A TIGHT-FITTING LID OR A SHEET OF ALUMINUM FOIL. IF THE FIRE IS OUTSIDE THE PAN/COOKING VESSEL, SUFFOCATE IT WITH BAKING SODA OR HAVE A FIRE EXTINGUISHER IN YOUR KITCHEN THAT IS FORMULATED FOR GREASE FIRES.

Recipe: Know your oils…………..

|June 11, 2011|read comments (0)
Author: Mama's Kitchen

With so many oils on the market, and various recipes calling for different oils, it can be confusing. Hopefully this little oil guide will help:

NOTE: Because I tend to get long-winded, I will post a separate listing of the smoke points of oils. Knowing the smoke point of an oil will save you money and ensure good-tasting foods.

ALMOND OIL (Monounsaturated)
Sweet almond oil is made from a combination of sweet almonds and a minute quantity of bitter almonds. It is a fixed oil, clear, and pale yellow in color. It’s taste is bland and slightly nutty. Many substitute almond oil for olive oil in cooking. Since almonds contain monounsaturated fat, it is healthier for you and helps to lower blood pressure (although it is high in fat and calories). Many Oriental stir-fry dishes call for this oil.

AVOCADO OIL (Monounsaturated)
Rich in monounsaturated fatty acids and Vitamin E, this oil will lower the bad cholesterol and increase the good cholesterol. Don’t replace your olive oil with it, but use as a blend with olive oil. It will have the lingering flavor or avocado as well. Goes well in any dish that has avocado in it and can compliment many dishes and appetizers – especially those that are seafood dishes. Can also be used to marinate seafood. Use in stir-fry dishes, or for searing (has a high smoke point).

BUTTER (Saturated)
A mix of fats, milk solids and natural water which results from churning, butter is great of baking and used widely in many recipes.

BUTTER, CLARIFIED (GHEE) (Saturated)
This has a higher smoke point than butter because clarification eliminates the milk solids that burn at lower temperatures. Great for sautéing or frying.

CANOLA OIL (RAPESEED) (Monounsaturated)
This is a light, golden-colored tasteless oil, lower in saturated fat that any other oil and contains more cholesterol-balancing monounsaturated fat than any oil EXCEPT olive oil. Made by the process of cross-breeding rapeseed varieties (plants – not genetically engineered). A good all-purpose oil for anything from salads to cooking.

COCONUT OIL (Saturated)
This oil is extracted from the kernel (meat) of matured coconuts. It has a high level of saturated fat and yet is being recognized by the medical community as a powerful tool against immune diseases. Having a high smoke point makes it excellent for cooking and frying. A heavy and almost colorless oil. Good for coatings, confectionary, and shortening.

CORN OIL (Polyunsaturated)
An extract from the germ (endosperm) of the corn kernel having a mild, medium-yellow color. Excellent for frying, salad dressings, and in shortening.

COTTONSEED OIL (Polyunsaturated)
A pale yellow oil extracted from the seed of the cotton plant; classified as a vegetable oil and is lower in cholesterol than other oils having little to no trans-fats per serving. Used in margarine, salad dressings, shortenings; excellent for frying.

FLAXSEED OIL (Polyunsaturated)
A cold-pressed oil extracted from flax seeds (a product of wine-making) that is light, medium-yellow used for sautéing and frying as well as salad dressings. Also can be taken as a supplement being a resource for Omega 3 essential fatty acids.

GRAPESEED OIL (Polyunsaturated)
The oil extracted from wine grapes being light, medium-yellow in color with a light flavor with just a hint of nuttiness. Excellent for sautéing an frying as well as used in salad dressings.

HAZELNUT OIL (Monounsaturated)
The result of grinding and roasting hazelnuts (filberts) before pressing to extract the oil having a strong hazelnut taste which can be mixed with a lighter oil (like canola) to lighten the flavor. Used in salad dressings, baking, marinades; doesn’t contain any cholesterol.

HEMP SEED OIL (Polyunsaturated)
Pressed from hemp seeds. Cold and unrefined hemp oil is dark to light green in color with a pleasant nutty flavor; the darker the green (color), the “grassier” the taste. Refined hemp oil is light and flavorless.
Not good for frying with a very low smoke point; used as a dietary supplement.

LARD (Saturated)
The rendered or unrendered fat from a pig primarily used as a cooking fat (shortening) and in previous years was used as a margarine/butter spread. Today many have substituted vegetable shortening for lard. Excellent in baking and for frying.

MACADAMIA NUT OIL (Monounsaturated)
A light oil, similar to the finest extra virgin olive oil that is extracted from macadamia nuts used for sautéing, skillet frying, searing, deep-frying, stir-fry, grilling, broiling, an baking.

OLIVE OIL (Monounsaturated)
There are various olive oils on the market which vary in weight and color – all depending on the fruit used and the processing.
EXTRA VIRGIN OLIVE OIL is great for just about any use. It’s green in color and has somewhat of a fruity flavor. It’s unrefined and can be used for sautéing and as a seasoning (adding a splash to your dish as it goes on the table), as well as in salad dressings/vinaigrettes. Said to be the highest quality – it is from the first pressing of fresh chopped or crushed olives.
Next comes EXTRA-VIRGIN OLIVE OIL and FINE VIRGIN OLIVE OIL which is also cold-pressed. Breaks down easily at frying temperatures.
There is a SEMI-FINE or ORDINARY VIRGIN OLIVE OIL which when properly processed it maintains the purity of the fruit’s flavor, aroma and vitamins. Best used for frying.
VIRGIN OLIVE OIL has a higher acidity level than extra virgin.
Pressing olives (cold-press) is best. It involves pressure, producing a natural low level of acidity in oil.
Some PURE OLIVE OIL is a blend of extra virgin, virgin, and refined olive oil (refined meaning processed with chemicals to remove impurities). This oil will lack the flavor of extra virgin and virgin oils; best for sautéing and frying.
PUMACE OIL is olive oil produced by heat and chemicals; extracted from the leftover pulp (pumace) of extra virgin and virgin olive oil processing. The lowest grade of olive oil.
EXTRA LIGHT is heavily refined with very little color or flavor; used in cooking and baking.

PALM OIL (Saturated)
This yellowish-orange (such color is because of the high amount of beta carotene in it – and the process of boiling destroys the beta carotene but not the color) fatty oil is extracted from the pulp of the fruit of the oil palm. It is a semi-solid at room temperature. Primarily used in frying, cooking, and flavoring.

PALM KERNEL OIL (Saturated)
Palm kernel oil is extracted from the kernel (seed) of the oil palm. It is a semi-solid at room temperature. Primarily used in frying, cooking, and flavoring.

PEANUT OIL (Monounsaturated)
This pale yellow refined oil has a subtle scent and delicate flavor; made from pressing steam-cooked peanuts having a high smoke point. Used in frying (great for chicken and French fries), cooking, and salad dressings.

PUMPKIN SEED OIL (Polyunsaturated)
Pumpkin seed oil (a/k/a pumpkinseed oil) is made by pressing roasted, hulled pumpkins seeds (pepitas), from the Styrian oil pumpkin. Its oil can be light green to dark red in color – depending on thickness with green in the thin layer and red in the thick layer. It has a very intense nutty flavor and makes an excellent salad dressing when combined with olive oil and honey. When browned it has a bitter taste.

RAPESEED OIL (See CANOLA OIL)

RICE BRAN OIL (Monounsaturated)
This oil is produced by extracted the oil from the germ and inner husk of rice and has a very high smoke point making it excellent for skillet-frying and deep-frying, as well as sautéing, salad dressings, baking, and dipping oils.

SAFFLOWER OIL (Polyunsaturated)
This oil is flavorless and colorless with a light texture, derived from pressing the seeds from safflowers having a high smoke point (good for deep frying) and makes an excellent salad dressing (doesn’t solidify when chilled). Also used in mayonnaise, and margarines.

SESAME OIL (Polyunsaturated)
Sesame oil is extracted from sesame seeds. Cold-pressed sesame oil is pale yellow, Indian sesame oil is golden in color, and Chinese and Korean sesame oils are dark brown. Dark brown sesame seed oil is from toasted/roasted sesame seeds – which also enhances the flavor. Dark sesame seed oil and be combined with peanut or canola oils used in stir-fry dishes, cooking, and salad dressings.

SHORTENING – VEGETABLE (Saturated)
A semi-solid fat that is used mostly in baked goods as well as for skillet-frying and deep-frying, having a high smoke point. It has a 100% fat content compared to butter or margarine that is only 80%. Made from blended oil that is solidified using various processes including whipping in air and hydrogenation. Some have an artificial (or real) butter flavor added.

SOY/SOYBEAN OIL (Polyunsaturated)
Soy/soybean oil is a fairly heavy oil that is extracted from whole soybeans. Read the labels of your “vegetable” oils when grocery shopping and you will see it is made from soybeans. It is cholesterol-free and is also used in making margarines and shortening as well as in salad dressings.

SUNFLOWER OIL (Polyunsaturated)
This light, colorless to pale-yellow oil is pressed from oil-type sunflower seeds. Used for cooking and in margarine as well as salad dressings and shortening.

TEA OIL (Monounsaturated)
This oil is pressed from the seeds of tea plants, with a delicate floral flavor good for salads and pasta dishes. Also great in Asian dishes. It has not trans fats or cholesterol. Great for deep-frying because of it has the highest smoke level of all oils.

VEGETABLE OIL (Polyunsaturated)
This can be made from single ingredient or a blend of several different ingredients. It’s a refined oil which is great for high-heat frying. The unrefined specialty oils are better in salads and other cold dishes. These oils can be extracted from seeds, nuts, or the flesh of fruit (like olive oil). Mildly flavored, great for cooking and salad dressings.

WALNUT OIL (Monounsaturated)
This medium-yellow (topaz) oil has a rich, nutty flavor is made from roasted walnuts (dried and cold-pressed). A cheap imitation of walnut oil can be made from soaking walnuts in vegetable oil which really does not give the oil an flavor. Used in sautéing, skillet-frying, stir-fry dishes, grilling, broiling, and deep-frying.

Recipe: COCOA: Dutch Process VS Regular

|June 11, 2011|read comments (0)
Author: Mama's Kitchen

Substitution for 3 tablespoons (18 grams) Dutch-processed cocoa: 3 tablespoons (18 grams) natural cocoa powder plus pinch (1/8 teaspoon) baking soda

Substitution for 3 tablespoons (18 grams) natural cocoa: 3 tablespoons (18 grams) Dutch-processed cocoa plus 1/8 teaspoon cream of tartar or 1/8 teaspoon lemon juice or vinegar

Note: Due to the differences between natural and Dutch-processed cocoa powders, do not substitute one for the other in recipes.

Note: Do not confuse unsweetened natural and Dutch-processed cocoa powder with sweetened cocoa drink mixes. They are not the same thing.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Dutch-Processed or Alkalized Unsweetened Cocoa Powder is treated with an alkali to neutralize its acids. Because it is neutral and does not react with baking soda, it must be used in recipes calling for baking powder, unless there are other acidic ingredients in sufficient quantities used. It has a reddish-brown color, mild flavor, and is easy to dissolve in liquids. Its delicate flavor makes it ideal in baked goods like European cakes and pastries where its subtle flavor complements other ingredients.

Natural Unsweetened Cocoa Powder tastes very bitter and gives a deep chocolate flavor to baked goods. Its intense flavor makes it well suited for use in brownies, cookies and some chocolate cakes. When natural cocoa (an acid) is used in recipes calling for baking soda (an alkali), it creates a leavening action that causes the batter to rise when placed in the oven.

When used alone in cakes, cocoa powder imparts a full rich chocolate flavor and dark color. Cocoa powder can also be used in recipes with other chocolates (unsweetened or dark) and this combination produces a cake with a more intense chocolate flavor than if the cocoa wasn't present. Most recipes call for sifting the cocoa powder with the flour but to bring out its full flavor it can be combined with a small amount of boiling water. (If you want to try this in a recipe, substitute some of the liquid in the recipe for boiling water.) Often times, you may notice that more butter and leavening agent are used in recipes containing cocoa powder. This is to offset cocoa powder's drying and strengthening affect in cakes. There are two types of unsweetened cocoa powder: natural and Dutch-processed and it is best to use the type specified in the recipe as the leavening agent used is dependent on the type of cocoa powder. Some prefer using Dutch-processed cocoa as a slight bitterness may be tasted in cakes using natural cocoa and baking soda.

To convert a cake recipe that uses bittersweet or semisweet chocolate to one using cocoa:

Substitute 1 tablespoon plus 1 3/4 teaspoons (9.5 grams) of cocoa, 1 tablespoon plus 1/2 teaspoon (14.5 grams) granulated white sugar, 1 1/2 teaspoons (7 grams) unsalted butter for every ounce (28 grams) of bittersweet or semisweet chocolate. Also, dissolve the cocoa in at least 1/4 cup (60 ml) hot liquid to bring out the cocoa's full flavor.

To convert a cake recipes that uses unsweetened chocolate to one using cocoa:

Substitute 3 tablespoons (18 grams) cocoa plus 1 tablespoon (14 grams) unsalted butter for every 1 ounce (28 grams) of unsweetened chocolate. Dissolve the cocoa in at least 2 tablespoons of liquid in the recipe to bring out the cocoa's full flavor.

Recipe: Substitutes

|June 1, 2011|read comments (0)
Author: Mama's Kitchen

Here's a few more that may help – especially at this time of the year:

Ingredient Amount * Substitutes
————————————————————————–
Allspice 1 teaspoon * 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon and 1/2 teaspoon
ground cloves
————————————————————————–
Apple pie spice 1 teaspoon * 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon, 1/4 teaspoon
nutmeg and 1/8 teaspoon cardamom
————————————————————————–
Arrowroot starch 1 teaspoon * 1 tablespoon flour
* 1 1/2 teaspoon cornstarch
————————————————————————–
Baking powder 1 teaspoon * 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 5/8
teaspoon cream of tartar
* 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2 cup
sour milk or buttermilk or yogurt
(decrease liquid called for in recipe
by 1/2 cup)
* 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2
tablespoon vinegar or lemon juice used
with sweet milk to make 1/2 cup
(decrease liquid called for in recipe
by 1/2 cup)
* 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/4 to
1/2 cup molasses (decrease liquid in
recipe by 1 to 2 tablespoons)
* 1/3 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2
teaspoon cream of tartar
————————————————————————–
Bay leaf 1 whole * 1/4 teaspoon cracked bay leaves
————————————————————————–
Beau monde 1 teaspoon * 1 teaspoon seasoning salt
seasoning * 1/2 teaspoon table salt plus dash of
garlic, onion and celery salts or
powders
————————————————————————–
Beef stock base, 2 teaspoons * 1 beef bouillon cube
instant
————————————————————————–
Beef stock base, 4 teaspoons * 1 can (10 1/2 ounces) condensed,
instant dissolved undiluted beef bouillon or consumme'
in 1 1/4
cups water
————————————————————————–
Bread crumbs, 1/3 cup * 1 slice of bread
dry
————————————————————————–
Bread crumbs, 3/4 cup * 1 slice bread
soft
————————————————————————–
Broth, beef or 1 cup * 1 bouillon cube dissolved in 1 cup
chicken boiling water
* 1 teaspoon powdered broth base
dissolved in 1 cup boiling water
————————————————————————–
Butter 1 cup * 7/8 to 1 cup hydrogenated fat plus 1/2
teaspoon salt
* 7/8 cup oil plus 1/2 teaspoon salt
* 7/8 cup lard plus 1/2 teaspoon salt
* 1 cup margarine
* 7/8 cup oil
————————————————————————–
Carob powder If recipe * 1 ounce unsweetened chocolate
calls for 3
tablespoons
carob powder
plus 2
tablespoons
water
————————————————————————–
Catsup 1 cup * 1 cup tomato sauce, 1/2 cup sugar and
2 tablespoons vinegar (for use in
cooking)
————————————————————————–
Chicken stock 1 1/2 * 1 chicken bouillon cube
base, instant teaspoons
————————————————————————–
Chicken stock 1 tablespoon * 1 cup canned or homemade chicken
base, instant dissolved in broth or stock
1 cup water
————————————————————————–
Chili sauce 1 cup * 1 cup tomato sauce, 1/4 cup brown
sugar, 2 tablespoons vinegar, 1/4
teaspoon cinnamon, dash of ground
cloves and dash of allspice
————————————————————————–
Chives, finely 2 teaspoons * 2 teaspoons finely chopped green onion
chopped tops
————————————————————————–
Chocolate chips, 1 ounce * 1 ounce sweet cooking chocolate
semisweet
————————————————————————–
Chocolate, 1-2/3 ounces * 1 ounce unsweetened chocolate plus
semisweet 4 teaspoons sugar
————————————————————————–
Chocolate, 6 ounce * 2 squares unsweetened chocolate plus
semisweet package 2 tablespoons shortening and 1/2 cup
pieces, melted sugar
————————————————————————–
Chocolate, 1 ounce or * 3 tablespoons cocoa plus 1 tablespoon
unsweetened square butter or margarine
* 3 tablespoons carob powder plus 2
tablespoons water
————————————————————————–
Cocoa 1/4 cup or * 1 ounce (square) chocolate (decrease
4 tablespoons fat called for in recipe by 1/2
tablespoon)
————————————————————————–
Coconut 1 tablespoon * 1 1/2 tablespoons fresh, grated
grated, dry
————————————————————————–
Coconut Cream 1 cup * 1 cup cream
————————————————————————–
Coconut Milk 1 cup * 1 cup milk
————————————————————————–
Corn Syrup 1 cup * 1 cup sugar plus 1/4 cup liquid (use
whatever liquid is called for in the
recipe)
* 1 cup honey
————————————————————————–
Cornstarch 1 tablespoon * 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour
(for thickening) * 4 to 6 teaspoons quick-cooking tapioca
————————————————————————–
Cracker crumbs 3/4 cup * 1 cup bread crumbs
————————————————————————–
Cream cheese * Part skim milk ricotta cheese or lowfat
cottage cheese beaten until smooth
————————————————————————–
Cream, 1 cup * 7/8 cup whole milk plus 1/2 tablespoon
half-and-half butter or margarine
* 3 tablespoons oil plus milk to equal
1 cup
* 1 cup evaporated milk
————————————————————————–
Cream, heavy 1 cup * 3/4 cup milk plus 1/3 cup butter or
(36 to 40% fat) margarine (for use in cooking and
baking)
* 2/3 cup buttermilk plus 1/3 cup oil
* Evaporated skim milk or equal parts of
part-skim milk ricotta cheese and
nonfat yogurt beaten until smooth
(this mixture cannot be heated because
of separation)
————————————————————————–
Cream, light 1 cup * 1 cup undiluted evaporated milk
(18 to 20% fat) * 14 tablespoons milk plus 3 tablespoons
butter or margarine
————————————————————————–
Cream, sour 1 cup * 3 tablespoons butter plus 7/8 cup sour
(See Sour milk
cream, cultured) * 7/8 cup buttermilk plus 3 tablespoons
butter
————————————————————————–
Cream, whipped * Chill a 13 oz. can of evaporated milk
for 12 hours. Add 1 teaspoon lemon
juice. Whip until stiff.
* Beat until stiff: 1/2 cup ice-cold
water and 1/2 cup nonfat dry milk. Add
1/2 cup sugar, slowly, while beating.
Then add 2 tablespoons lemon juice and
beat until mixed well.
————————————————————————–
Cream, whipping 1 cup * 2 tablespoons lemon juice, 2
tablespoons sugar, 1 cup evaporated
milk
* 3/4 cup milk plus 1/3 cup butter (for
cooking only)
————————————————————————–
Cream of tartar 1/2 teaspoon * 1 1/2 teaspoon lemon juice or vinegar
————————————————————————–
Dill plant, 3 heads * 1 tablespoon dill seed
fresh or dried
————————————————————————–
Egg 1 whole (3 tablespoons) * 3 tablespoons slightly beaten egg
* 3 tablespoons plus 1 teaspoon frozen
egg, thawed
* 2 1/2 tablespoons sifted dry whole egg
powder plus 2 1/2 tablespoons lukewarm
water
* 1/4 cup egg substitute
* 1 egg white and 2 teaspoons oil
* 2 egg whites
* 2 yolks plus 1 tablespoon water
(in cookies)
* 2 yolks (in custards, cream fillings
and similar mixtures)
————————————————————————–
Egg substitute 1 egg * 2 egg whites. May add 1 to 3 teaspoons
vegetable oil for each yolk omitted.
* 1 egg white, 2 1/4 teaspoons nonfat
dry milk powder, and 2 teaspoons
vegetable oil (may store 1 week in
refrigerator or freezer)
* In cookies and cakes only — use 2
tablespoons water plus 1/2 teaspoon
baking powder
* In cookie and cake recipes that call
for 2 or 3 eggs — for each egg, use
2 tablespoons flour, 1/2 tablespoon
shortening, 1/2 teaspoon baking
powder, 2 tablespoons liquid (use
liquid called for in recipe)
————————————————————————–
Egg white 1 white * 2 tablespoons frozen egg white, thawed
(2 tablespoons) * 2 teaspoons sifted dry egg white
powder plus 2 tablespoons lukewarm
water
————————————————————————–
Egg yolk 1 yolk * 2 tablespoons sifted dry egg yolk
(1 1/2 powder plus 2 teaspoons water
tablespoons) * 1-1/3 tablespoons frozen egg yolk,
thawed
————————————————————————–
Extracts 1 teaspoon * 1/4 teaspoon oil of similar flavor

(example: mint 1/4 teaspoon * 2 drops oil of similar flavor (oils
extract) won't evaporate at high temperatures)
————————————————————————–
Flavor-based oil 1/4 teaspoon * 1 teaspoon extract of same flavor

(example: oil of 2 drops * 1/4 teaspoon extract of same flavor
peppermint)
————————————————————————–
Flour, 1 tablespoon * 1/2 tablespoon cornstarch, potato
all-purpose starch, rice starch or arrowroot
(for thickening) starch
* 1 tablespoon granular tapioca
* 2 to 3 teaspoons quick-cooking tapioca
* 1 tablespoon waxy rice flour
* 1 tablespoon waxy corn flour
* 2 tablespoons browned flour
* 1 1/2 tablespoons whole wheat flour
* 1/2 tablespoon whole wheat flour plus
1/2 tablespoon all-purpose flour
————————————————————————–
Flour, 1 cup sifted The following flours require more
all-purpose leavening than wheat flour, so add
(Note: Speciality 2 1/2 teaspoons baking powder per cup of
flours added to flour. An even lighter product results
yeast bread when buttermilk plus 1/2 teaspoon baking
recipes will soda is substituted for each cup of milk
result in a in the recipe:
reduced volume
and a heavier * 1 1/4 cups rye flour
product) * 3/4 cup rice flour
* 1 1/2 cups oat flour
* 1 cup corn flour
* 3/4 cup coarse cornmeal
* 1 cup fine cornmeal
* 5/8 cup potato starch flour
* 1-1/8 cups cake flour
* 1 1/2 cups bread crumbs
* 1 cup rolled oats
* 1 1/2 cups barley flour
* 1 cup unsifted all-purpose flour
minus 2 tablespoons
* 1/3 cup cornmeal or soybean flour
plus 2/3 cup all-purpose flour
* 1/2 cup cornmeal, bran, rice flour,
rye flour or whole wheat flour plus
1/2 cup all-purpose flour
* Substitute whole wheat flour for 1/4
to 1/2 of white flour called for in a
recipe
* 1/4 cup soybean flour plus 3/4 cup
all-purpose flour
* 1/3 cup wheat germ plus 2/3 cup
all-purpose flour
————————————————————————–
Flour, cake 1 cup sifted * 1 cup minus 2 tablespoons sifted
all-purpose flour
————————————————————————–
Flour, pastry 1 cup * 7/8 cup all-purpose flour
————————————————————————–
Flour, 1 cup * 1 cup minus 2 teaspoons all-purpose
self-rising flour plus 1 1/2 teaspoons baking
powder and ½ teaspoon salt
————————————————————————–
Flour, whole 1 cup * 1 cup white wheat flour
wheat * 1 cup graham flour
————————————————————————–
Garlic 1 clove, * 1/8 teaspoon garlic powder or 1/4
small teaspoon instant minced garlic
————————————————————————–
Garlic salt 3/4 teaspoon * 1 medium size clove or 1/2 teaspoon
minced fresh
————————————————————————–
Gelatine, 3-ounce * 1 tablespoon plain gelatine plus 2
flavored package cups fruit juice
————————————————————————–
Ginger 1/8 teaspoon, * 1 tablespoon candied ginger rinsed in
powdered water to remove sugar, finely cut
* 1 tablespoon fresh ginger, grated
————————————————————————–
Herbs, dried 1 teaspoon * 1 tablespoon fresh, finely cut
————————————————————————–
Herbs, fresh 1 tablespoon, * 1 teaspoon dried herbs
finely cut * 1/2 teaspoon ground herbs
————————————————————————–
Honey 1 cup * 1 1/4 cups sugar plus 1/4 cup liquid
(use liquid called for in recipe)
————————————————————————–
Horseradish 1 tablespoon, * 2 tablespoons bottled
fresh
————————————————————————–
Lemon 1 teaspoon * 1/2 teaspoon vinegar
juice
1 medium * 2 to 3 tablespoons lemon juice and 1
to 2 teaspoons rind
————————————————————————–
Lemon peel, 1 teaspoon * 1 to 2 teaspoons grated fresh lemon
dried peel
* grated peel of 1 medium size lemon
* 1/2 teaspoon lemon extract
————————————————————————–
Macaroni 2 cups, * 2 cups spaghetti, uncooked, (2 inch
(4 cups cooked) uncooked pieces)
* 4 cups noodles, uncooked
————————————————————————–
Maple sugar 1/2 cup * 1 cup maple syrup
————————————————————————–
Maple sugar 1 tablespoon * 1 tablespoon white granulated sugar
(grated and
packed)
————————————————————————–
Marshmallows, 1 cup * 10 large
miniature
————————————————————————–
Mayonnaise (for 1 cup * 1/2 cup yogurt and ½ cup mayonnaise or
use in salads salad dressing
and salad * 1 cup salad dressing
dressings) * 1 cup sour cream
* 1 cup yogurt
* 1 cup cottage cheese pureed in a
blender
————————————————————————–
Milk, buttermilk 1 cup * 1 cup plain yogurt
————————————————————————–
Milk, buttermilk 1 cup * 1 cup minus 1 tablespoon sweet milk
or sour plus 1 tablespoon lemon juice or
vinegar (allow to stand 5 to 10
minutes)
* 1 cup sweet milk and 1 3/4 teaspoons
cream of tartar
————————————————————————–
Milk, evaporated If recipe * 1 cup liquid whole milk
(whole or skim) calls for 1/2
cup plus 1/2
cup water
————————————————————————–
Milk, evaporated 1 can (about * Whip until smooth:
12 ounces) 1 cup nonfat dry milk
1 3/4 cups warm water
Keep refrigerated
————————————————————————–
Milk, skim 1 cup * 4 to 5 tablespoons nonfat dry milk
powder and enough water to make one
cup, or follow manufacturer's
directions
1/4 cup * 4 teaspoons nonfat dry milk powder
plus water to make 1/4 cup, or follow
manufacturer's directions
1/3 cup * 2 tablespoons nonfat dry milk powder
plus water to make 1/3 cup, or follow
manufacturer's directions
————————————————————————–
Milk, sweetened 1 can (about * Heat the following ingredients until
condensed 1-1/3 cup) sugar and butter are dissolved:
1/3 cup and 2 tablespoons
evaporated milk
1 cup sugar
3 tablespoons butter or margarine
1 cup * Heat the following ingredients until
sugar and butter are dissolved:
1/3 cup evaporated milk
3/4 cup sugar
2 tablespoons butter or margarine
* Add 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons dry milk
powder to 1/2 cup warm water. Mix
well. Add 3/4 cup sugar and stir until
smooth.
————————————————————————–
Milk, sweetened To make about * Combine 1 cup instant nonfat dry milk,
condensed 1 1/4 cups in 2/3 cup sugar, 1/3 cup boiling water
blender and 3 tablespoons margarine. Blend
until smooth. To thicken, let set in
refrigerator for 24 hours.
————————————————————————–
Milk, whole 1 cup * 1 cup reconstituted nonfat dry milk
plus 2 1/2 teaspoons butter or
margarlne
* 1/2 cup evaporated milk plus 1/2 cup
water
* 1 cup buttermilk plus 1/2 teaspoon
baking soda (for use in baking,
decrease baking powder by 2
teaspoons)
* 4 tablespoons whole dry milk plus 1
cup water or follow manufacturer's
directions
* 1 cup fruit juice or 1 cup potato
water (in baking)
* 1/4 cup nonfat dry milk, 7/8 cup
water and 2 teaspoons butter or
margarine
* 1 cup water plus 1½ teaspoons butter
(in baking)
————————————————————————–
Molasses 1 cup * 3/4 cup sugar plus 2 teaspoons baking
powder (increase liquid called for in
recipe by 5 tablespoons and decrease
baking soda by 1/2 teaspoon)
* 3/4 cup sugar plus 1 1/4 teaspoons
cream of tartar (increase liquid
called for in recipe by 5 tablespoons)
————————————————————————–
Mushrooms 1 pound fresh * 3 ounces dried mushrooms
* 6- or 8-ounce can
————————————————————————–
Mushrooms, 1 tablespoon * 3 tablespoons whole dried mushrooms
powdered * 4 ounces fresh
* 2 ounces canned
————————————————————————–
Mustard, dry 1 teaspoon * 1 tablespoon prepared mustard
* 1/2 teaspoon mustard seeds
————————————————————————–
Oil, flavor-based * See Flavor-Based Oil
(example: oil of
peppermint)
————————————————————————–
Onion 1 small * 1/4 cup chopped, fresh onion
* 1-1/3 teaspoons onion salt
* 1 to 2 tablespoons minced onion
* 1 teaspoon onion powder
————————————————————————–
Orange 1 medium * 6 to 8 tablespoons juice
————————————————————————–
Orange peel, 1 tablespoon * 2 to 3 tablespoons grated fresh orange
dried peel
* Grated peel of 1 medium-size orange
2 teaspoons * 1 teaspoon orange extract
————————————————————————–
Orange peel, 1 medium * 2 to 3 tablespoons grated fresh orange
fresh peel
————————————————————————–
Parsley, dried 1 teaspoon * 3 teaspoons fresh parsley, chopped
————————————————————————–
Peppers, 1 tablespoon, * 3 tablespoons fresh green pepper,
green bell dried chopped
————————————————————————–
Peppers, 1 tablespoon, * 3 tablespoons fresh red bell pepper,
red bell dried chopped
* 2 tablespoons pimiento, chopped
————————————————————————–
Peppermint 1 tablespoon * 1/4 cup fresh mint, chopped
extract * See also Extracts
————————————————————————–
Pimiento 2 tablespoons * 1 tablespoon dried red bell peppers,
chopped rehydrated
* 3 tablespoons fresh red bell pepper,
chopped
————————————————————————–
Pumpkin pie 1 teaspoon * 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon, 1/4 teaspoon
ginger, 1/8 teaspoon allspice and 1/8
teaspoon nutmeg
————————————————————————–
Rennet 1 tablet * 1 tablespoon liquid rennet
————————————————————————–
Rice 1 cup regular, * 1 cup uncooked converted rice
uncooked (3 cups cooked)
* 1 cup uncooked brown rice
* 1 cup uncooked wild rice
1 cup cooked * 1 cup cooked bulgur wheat
* 1 cup cooked pearl barley
————————————————————————–
Rum 1/4 cup * 1 tablespoon rum extract plus 3
tablespoons liquid (use liquid called
for in recipe or water)
————————————————————————–
Shortening, 1 cup * 1 cup cooking oil (cooking oil should
melted not be substituted if recipe does not
call for melted shortening)
————————————————————————–
Shortening, 1 cup * 1 cup minus 2 tablespoons lard
(used in baking) * 1-1/8 cups butter or margarine
(decrease salt called for in recipe by
1/2 teaspoon)
————————————————————————–
Shrimp, fresh 1 cup cleaned, * 3/4 pound raw in shell, clean and cook
cooked * 7-ounce package frozen, peeled shrimp,
cooked
* 4 1/2- or 5-ounce can of shrimp
————————————————————————–
Sour cream, 1 cup * 7/8 cup sour milk or buttermilk plus
cultured 1/3 cup butter or margarine
* Blend until smooth: 1/3 cup
buttermilk, 1 tablespoon lemon juice
and 1 cup cottage cheese
* 1-1/8 cups non-fat dry milk powder,
1/2 cup warm water, and 1 tablespoon
vinegar (mixture will thicken in
refrigerator in a few hours)
* 1 cup evaporated milk at 70°F plus 1
table-spoon vinegar (allow to stand
until it clabbers)
* 1 cup plain yogurt (in cooking add a
tablespoon of cornstarch to each cup
to prevent separating)
* 3/4 cup milk, 3/4 teaspoon lemon
juice and 1/3 cup butter or margarine
* 3/4 cup buttermilk plus ¼ cup oil
* 1 cup cottage cheese and 2 or 3
teaspoons of lemon juice, pureed in
blender
————————————————————————–
Spearmint, 1 tablespoon * 1/4 cup fresh mint, chopped
extract * See also Extracts
————————————————————————–
Sugar, brown 1 cup, firmly * 1 cup granular sugar
packed * 1 cup granulated sugar plus 1/4 cup
molasses
————————————————————————–
Sugar, 1 cup * 3/4 cup granulated sugar
confectioners'
or powdered
————————————————————————–
Sugar, white 1 teaspoon * 1/2 to 3/4 teaspoon honey or molasses
1 cup * 2 cups corn syrup (reduce liquid
called for in recipe by 1/4 cup. Never
replace more than 1/2 of sugar called
for in recipe with corn syrup.)
* 1 cup brown sugar, firmly packed
* 1 3/4 cups confectioners' sugar (for
uses other than baking)
* 1 cup molasses plus 1/2 teaspoon soda
(omit baking powder or use very
little. Substitute molasses for no
more than half the sugar. Reduce
liquid in recipe by 1/4 cup per cup
of molasses.)
* 3/4 cup maple syrup (Reduce liquid
called for in recipe by 3
tablespoons.)
* 1 cup honey (decrease liquid called
for in recipe by 1/4 cup. In baked
goods, add 1/2 teaspoon of baking
soda for each cup of honey substituted
and lower baking temperature 25
degrees. In cookie recipes using eggs
and no additional liquid, increase the
flour by about 2 tablespoons per cup
of honey. Chill before shaping and
baking. Half of the sugar in cakes,
can be replaced with honey. Two-thirds
of the sugar can be replaced in fruit
bars, but replace no more than a third
of the sugar in ginger snaps with
honey. When making cakes or cookies,
first mix honey with the fat or the
liquid, then mix with other
ingredients. If this is not done, a
soggy layer may form on top of the
baked product.)
————————————————————————–
Sugar, white Sweeteners:
* Sugar Twin and Sprinkle Sweet:
measure like sugar. Substitute 1
teaspoon sweetener for 1 teaspoon
sugar, 1 cup sweetener for 1 cup
sugar.
* Equal: 1 packet = 2 teaspoons sugar
* Sweet 10: 10 drops = 1 teaspoon sugar
1 tablespoon = 1/2 cup sugar
————————————————————————–
Tapioca, 1 tablespoon * 2 tablespoons pearl tapioca
granular 2 teaspoons * 1 tablespoon flour
————————————————————————–
Tomato juice 1 cup * 1/2 cup tomato sauce plus 1/2 cup
water
————————————————————————–
Tomatoes, fresh 2 cups, chopped * 16-ounce can
————————————————————————–
Tomato sauce 15-ounce can * 6-ounce can tomato paste plus 1 cup
water
————————————————————————–
Tomatoes, chopped 16-ounce can * 3 fresh medium tomatoes
* 16-ounce can stewed tomatoes
————————————————————————–
Tomato soup 10 3/4-ounce can * 1 cup tomato sauce plus 1/4 cup water
————————————————————————–
Vanilla extract 1 teaspoon * 1-inch vanilla bean split and
simmered in liquid of recipe
————————————————————————–
Wine 1 cup * 13 tablespoons water, 3 tablespoons
lemon juice and 1 tablespoon sugar
————————————————————————–
Worcestershire 1 teaspoon * 1 teaspoon bottled steak sauce
sauce
————————————————————————–
Yeast, 1 tablespoon * 1 cake (6/10 ounce), compressed
active dry (2/3 ounce)
* 1 packaged (1/4 ounce) active dry
yeast
————————————————————————–
Yogurt, plain 1 cup * 1 cup buttermilk
* 1 cup cottage cheese blended until
smooth
* 1 cup sour cream

Recipe: Substitutions

|June 1, 2011|read comments (0)
Author: Mama's Kitchen

If you run out of something – there is usually something you can substitute for it –

1 t. grated lemon zest – ½ t. lemon extract

½ t. cream of tartar – 1 ½ t. lemon juice

1 c. cake flour – 1 c. flour minus 2 T.

1 c. self-rising flour – 1 c. flour plus 2 t. baking powder & ½ t. salt

1 oz. unsweetened – 3 T. cocoa & 1 T. vegetable oil
chocolate

1 t. ground cinnamon – ¼ t. ground nutmeg or allspice

1 oz. semisweet – 3 T. cocoa & 1 T. sugar & 1 T. vegetable oil
chocolate

1 c. buttermilk – 1 T. white vinegar and enough milk to make 1 c.

1 c. dark corn syrup – ¾ c. light corn syrup & ¼ c. light molasses OR
1 ½ c. brown sugar & ¼ c. water

1 c. cream cheese – ½ c. cottage cheese & ½ c. heavy cream pureed together

much more will be posted – just follow the "Substitutions" label!

Recipe: COCOA: Dutch Process VS Regular

|March 27, 2011|read comments (0)
Author: Mama's Kitchen

Substitution for 3 tablespoons (18 grams) Dutch-processed cocoa:

3 tablespoons (18 grams) natural cocoa powder plus pinch (1/8 teaspoon) baking sodaSubstitution for 3 tablespoons (18 grams)

 

natural cocoa: 3 tablespoons (18 grams) Dutch-processed cocoa plus 1/8 teaspoon cream of tartar or 1/8 teaspoon lemon juice or vinegar

 

Note: Due to the differences between natural and Dutch-processed cocoa powders, do not substitute one for the other in recipes.

 


Note: Do not confuse unsweetened natural and Dutch-processed cocoa powder with sweetened cocoa drink mixes. They are not the same thing.

 

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

 


Dutch-Processed or Alkalized Unsweetened Cocoa Powder is treated with an alkali to neutralize its acids. Because it is neutral and does not react with baking soda, it must be used in recipes calling for baking powder, unless there are other acidic ingredients in sufficient quantities used. It has a reddish-brown color, mild flavor, and is easy to dissolve in liquids. Its delicate flavor makes it ideal in baked goods like European cakes and pastries where its subtle flavor complements other ingredients.

 

Natural Unsweetened Cocoa Powder tastes very bitter and gives a deep chocolate flavor to baked goods. Its intense flavor makes it well suited for use in brownies, cookies and some chocolate cakes. When natural cocoa (an acid) is used in recipes calling for baking soda (an alkali), it creates a leavening action that causes the batter to rise when placed in the oven. When used alone in cakes, cocoa powder imparts a full rich chocolate flavor and dark color.

 

Cocoa powder can also be used in recipes with other chocolates (unsweetened or dark) and this combination produces a cake with a more intense chocolate flavor than if the cocoa wasn't present.

 

Most recipes call for sifting the cocoa powder with the flour but to bring out its full flavor it can be combined with a small amount of boiling water. (If you want to try this in a recipe, substitute some of the liquid in the recipe for boiling water.)

Often times, you may notice that more butter and leavening agent are used in recipes containing cocoa powder. This is to offset cocoa powder's drying and strengthening affect in cakes.

 

There are two types of unsweetened cocoa powder: natural and Dutch-

processed and it is best to use the type specified in the recipe as the leavening agent used is dependent on the type of cocoa powder.

Some prefer using Dutch-processed cocoa as a slight bitterness may be tasted in cakes using natural cocoa and baking soda.

 


To convert a cake recipe that uses bittersweet or semisweet chocolate to one using cocoa:


Substitute 1 tablespoon plus 1 3/4 teaspoons (9.5 grams) of cocoa, 1 tablespoon plus 1/2 teaspoon (14.5 grams) granulated white sugar, 1 1/2 teaspoons (7 grams) unsalted butter for every ounce (28 grams) of bittersweet or semisweet chocolate. Also, dissolve the cocoa in at least 1/4 cup (60 ml) hot liquid to bring out the cocoa's full flavor.

 

To convert a cake recipes that uses unsweetened chocolate to one using cocoa:


Substitute 3 tablespoons (18 grams) cocoa plus 1 tablespoon (14 grams) unsalted butter for every 1 ounce (28 grams) of unsweetened chocolate. Dissolve the cocoa in at least 2 tablespoons of liquid in the recipe to bring out the cocoa's full flavor.

Recipe: Okay – back to the pantry – Making Brown Sugar!

|March 13, 2011|read comments (0)
Author: Mama's Kitchen

As you read my recipes you find ** after the ingredients noting that you can save money and make this item yourself or when in a pinch and you've run out or if it is something you only use on occasion and wish not to purchase to waste the rest of it – which is very understandable with the price of everything today!


So it's time to get busy and make some of your own brown sugar.

 


There is really no effort involved – it's so easy.


Place 1 cup of granulated sugar into a bowl.


Measure in 1 tablespoon molasses.
Work the molasses into the sugar using a fork until thoroughly incorporated.

 


For making light brown sugar – use light molasses and for making dark brown sugar – use dark molasses.

 

Don't want to buy dark brown molasses? Add more light molasses to make dark brown sugar.


Make as much as you need – no waste for those that use it rarely.

Recipe: Make your own baking powder

|March 2, 2011|read comments (0)
Author: Mama's Kitchen

Making your own baking powder is very easy and will save money at the supermarket.
You can make as much as you want. If you don't use it much – make a smaller batch and there is no waste.

 


Many purchase baking powder (as well as baking soda) and it sits in the pantry or on the cupboard shelf without getting used. How long has yours been sitting there?

 


Baking POWDER will lose its potency over time. You cannot trust expiration dates on the bottom of the can – once opened it will begin to lose its potency.


To find out if yours is still good, stir a teaspoon of baking powder into 1/4 cup warm water. If it doesn't bubble right away – toss it. It's no good and it is not going to do anything for your baking. One thing you don't want to do is waste your time and money making something that is not going to turn out.

 


As far as testing your baking SODA – place a teaspoon of vinegar or lemon juice in small bowl and add 1 tablespoon baking soda. It should fizz immediately. If it does then it is still effective and can be used in baking.


Since baking soda has other purposes than just being used in baking – retire the box to where you keep your cleaning or laundry supplies and buy a fresh box for baking.

 

 


How to make your own baking powder:

 


Baking Powder, Double-Acting


Amount: 1 teaspoon
Substitute: 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 5/8 teaspoon cream of tartar

 


Baking Soda
There is NO substitute for baking soda
In a hurry? You can make a quick substitute for a teaspoon of baking powder by combining 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar.

 


Need a tablespoon of baking powder?
1 teaspoon baking soda
2 teaspoons cream of tartar
1 teaspoon corn starch (optional)


NOTE: Use immediately. If you want to store it – add the corn starch to the mix. The corn starch will absorb any moisture in the air and prevent the baking power from reacting before you need it. Store airtight in your pantry.

 


INTERESTING FACT: Commercially made baking powder contains sodium aluminum sulfate – we don't need aluminum in our baking – make it homemade – make it healthier.

 


NOTE: There is NO substitute for baking SODA.

Recipe: Batters, breadings, and coatings

|February 24, 2011|read comments (0)
Author: Mama's Kitchen

Let’s talk a bit about batters, breadings and coatings.


First of all there are batters. Batters can have a thin consistency similar to light cream (as for crepes, blintzes, etc.); or they can be of a medium consistency such as pancake batter, or it can have a thicker consistency like waffle batter, also known as drop batter. There are some batters that are quite stiff.


Batters are a liquid mixture that is made from one or more flours and mixed with water, milk, or beer. Eggs can be added and as well as a leavening agent. Some batters are naturally fermented. These batters can be savory or they can be sweet. Some batters have herbs and spices added, some have sweeteners.

Some may have fruits or vegetables added to them.


Once these batters are heated through (either by frying, baking or steaming), the batter becomes solid.


As I previously said, batters make crepes, pancakes, waffles, Yorkshire puddings, fritters, doughnuts, hushpuppies, tempera, breads, cakes, cookies, and can also be used to coat meats, poultry, fish and seafood, and vegetables.


Breading is a dry coating used on vegetables, meats, poultry, fish, shellfish and soy made of breadcrumbs, cracker crumbs, flours, cornmeal, and seasonings, etc. to add crunchiness and flavor to foods.

Many times breaded foods are fried or deep-fried, but breaded foods can also be baked. “Dry” foods may need to be dipped in beaten egg, milk, or buttermilk before coating so that the breading will stick to the food.


A little about breadings:
I’ve seen so many cooks not sure of what to do when a recipe calls for Panko bread crumbs or what to do if they are out of something. So I’ve put this together and I hope it helps!


Breading adds a nice crisp coating to fried foods. Most commonly breadcrumbs are used (dry, fresh, seasoned, panko, panko seasoned), but crumbs are also made from crackers, melba toast, breakfast cereals, matzohs, pretzels, potato chips, snack chips, and corn chips!


To use your crumbs properly when breading meats or seafood be sure to dry the pieces completely, dust with a light coating of flour and dip in a mixture of eggs mixed with a little milk or water (or even oil). Then dredge your pieces in the breading (which can be flavored with herbs and spices to your liking) and place in a single layer on a large platter or plate. Refrigerate for at least an hour before frying them for best results.


Dry breadcrumbs are made from very dry bread, and make for a crispy, crunchy coating for fried foods.


Soft (or fresh) breadcrumbs are made from bread that is not as dry thus resulting in a softer coating, crust or stuffing.


Just about any bread can be made into bread crumbs, but the best is made from crusty French or Italian bread.


If you are going to make your own breadcrumbs, use day old (I don’t like to use the word "stale" because I don’t believe in using anything that is stale! And with some of the white breads on the market – they are dated weeks ahead (which is something I do not believe in at all. I am used to seeing bread made each day in my house; and then to make crumbs out of day-old bread you knew what you were eating!) By no means should you use any bread that is moldy or ready to turn moldy! There is no call for things left around the counters, refrigerators, etc. until they need to be carbon-dated to figure out what they are!


Place your bread slices on a baking sheet in a single layer and bake in a 200*F. oven until slightly dry if you are making fresh (soft) bread crumbs; or very dry if you are making dry breadcrumbs. Allow bread to cool; process in a food processor using a steel blade to make coarse crumbs, or a grating blade to make fine crumbs. If desired, season with salt, herbs, garlic powder, onion powder and or lemon zest.


For 1 cup of dry bread crumbs you should use approximately 4 slices of bread (depending on the type of bread used).


For 1 cup of soft (fresh) breadcrumbs you should use approximately 3 slices of bread (again depending on the type of bread used).


Not only are breadcrumbs used for breadings (meat, fish, etc.), toppings (casseroles etc.) and fillers (meatloaf, meatballs, etc.) but can also be used for stuffings/dressings, thickening stews, etc.


For seafood it is nice to use a panko breadcrumb since the crumbs are larger and stay crisp longer.


No bread to make breadcrumbs and in a pinch?

Try cracker crumbs (¾ cup is equivalent to 1 cup bread crumbs), OR croutons (crushed), OR stuffing (crushed), OR cornflake crumbs, OR matzoh meal, OR other unsweetened cereal flakes, OR potato flakes, OR rice cakes, OR high fiber cereal.


Panko breadcrumbs are a Japanese version of dry bread crumbs. The recipe, which is very easy, is this: The white panko is made from white bread with the crust removed, and the tan panko uses both the bread and the crust, you can also use whole wheat bread.


Start by trimming the crust off 4 white bread slices (to make 1 cup of fresh panko). Using a food processor, push the chunks through the shredding disk to make coarse crumbs (yes, Panko breadcrumbs are larger (coarser) than regular breadcrumbs and stay crunchier. Many prefer these over regular breadcrumbs.


Spread crumbs on a baking sheet and bake in a preheated 300* F.  oven for 6 to 8 minutes – taking the time to shake the sheet a couple times during the drying process.


NOTE: The crumbs should be DRY, NOT toasted, and they should NOT be brown.



SEASONED BREADCRUMBS


1 cup plain, dry breadcrumbs
½ teaspoon Kosher salt
¼ teaspoon fresh ground black pepper
1 teaspoon crushed dried thyme
1 teaspoon crushed dried rosemary

Combine; store airtight in pantry.



Since we’re talking about "crumbs" here’s a few more notes I would like to share:


Cake crumbs are easily made by crumbling leftover cake (without the frosting of course!), pound cake or even a store bought pound cake.

In a pinch? In most recipes you can substitute breadcrumbs.


Chocolate wafer crumbs are easily made by crumbling store-bought chocolate wafers. I think the most popular ones are the Nabisco Famous Chocolate Wafers. In a pinch? Substitute crushed Oreo cookies (filling and all) by using your food processor with a metal blade OR you can use vanilla wafers OR you can use graham cracker crumbs.


Coating mixes are great to have around. Not only do they make your meal special, but they add that flavor and/or crunchiness as well. Coatings work well on fish, seafood, chicken, beef and pork and well as many veggies. Making your own and keeping them in your pantry save time.

In a pinch?

Substitute corn flake crumbs (flavor with salt, paprika, onion powder, pepper, etc.) OR bread crumbs OR cracker crumbs.
Cornbread crumbs are nothing more than crumbled cornbread and work well used for stuffings/dressings or to bread poultry or fish. If using a homemade cornbread that you made, be sure to cool completely before crumbling.

In a pinch?

Use breadcrumbs.


Cornflake crumbs are just crushed cornflakes which work well as a coating for meat and fish or as a topping for casseroles. These can be purchased already crushed or you can crush your own. Approximately 3 cups of cornflakes will make 1 cup crushed cornflakes. The easiest way is to place cornflakes in a plastic bag and crush them yourself by hand or by using a rolling pin or heavy skillet.

In a pinch?

Substitute breadcrumbs (dry and fine) OR panko crumbs OR cornmeal OR cracker meal OR crushed Melba toast (add a bit of oil to these) OR breakfast cereal flakes OR corn chips (crushed) OR coating mix OR crushed pretzels.


Cracker meal is nothing more than crushed crackers; usually used for breading meat and fish. Cracker crumbs give a nice crispy, crunchy coating. You can buy these already crushed or you can crush your own by placing crackers in a plastic bag and crushing with a rolling pin.

In a pinch?

Substitute bread crumbs OR panko crumbs OR matzo meal OR cornflake crumbs.


Farfel is a term used by Jewish cooks referring to matzo or noodles that have been broken into small pieces.

In a pinch?

Substitute egg barley OR cracker meal OR crushed crunchy chow mein noodles.


Gingersnap crumbs are primarily used for pie crusts and to use as a sprinkling on top of desserts. These can be purchased or you can make your own by crushing gingersnaps.

In a pinch?

Substitute graham cracker crumbs OR chocolate wafer crumbs OR vanilla wafer crumbs.


Graham cracker crumbs make a terrific pie crust or crust for a cheesecake. These can also be purchased in the supermarket or you can crush your own. About 14 crackers will make 1 cup of crumbs.

In a pinch?

Substitute vanilla wafer crumbs (NOTE: these are sweeter so you may have to adjust your sugar in the recipe) OR chopped nuts (if using nuts 1 ½ cups chopped nuts and 1/8 cup sugar will equal 1 cup graham cracker crumbs and 1 cup sugar) OR chocolate wafer crumbs OR zwieback crumbs.


Matzo (matzoh) meal is used primarily by Jewish families during Passover for making pancakes, matzo balls, etc. Supermarkets carry matzo cake meal which is just a finer grind of matzo meal. You can easily make your own by grinding broken matzos in the food processor using a steel blade; grind into a coarse flour. About 3 matzos will make 1 cup matzo meal.

In a pinch?

Use bread crumbs OR cracker crumbs.
Panko bread crumbs – information is above.

Stuffing – dressing – stuffing croutons are usually used for stuffing (or dressing) in your bird. Stuffing goes in the bird and dressing is cooked in a casserole. Croutons are usually small bread cubes or shredded pieces of bread that have been dried. You can purchase bags of this in the supermarket but for a fresh-tasting stuffing or dressing, it is best to make your own. Just slice your bread into ¼-inch cubes and place on baking sheet; bake at 300* F. until crisp and dry.

In a pinch?

Substitute coarse bread crumbs OR croutons OR cornbread crumbs (softer consistency) OR rice OR potatoes.


Vanilla wafer crumbs are usually used to make pie crusts. Simply made by placing in a plastic bag and crushing with a rolling pin. It should take about 22 cookies to make 1 cup of crumbs – but I have noticed lately that they are making the cookies smaller!

In a pinch?

Use graham cracker crumbs OR chocolate wafer crumbs OR Oreo cookies (crush filling and all using a metal blade in your food processor and remember to omit additional sugar if the recipe calls for it in your crust recipe) OR crushed gingersnaps.


When coating foods they need to be dredged (pulled through dry ingredients) in order to coat before cooking.


When coating foods, the coating acts as a barrier that not only keeps the foods from sticking to the pan as it cooks, but also gives the exterior of the food that nice crunch and golden goodness we all enjoy, while preventing the texture of the food from becoming tough.


When dredging foods, the foods should be lightly dried by patting with paper towels – removing any excess moisture. The foods should be dredged evenly, coating all sides so that the foods will have a even golden brown appearance. Do not let the foods sit too long after dredging or it will become soggy, which effects the appearance and taste as well as effecting the cooking process.


Foods can also be coated by placing the coating in a large plastic bag, adding a few pieces of food at a time. Some prefer to use paper bags to do the job. There is no rule as to which is better – just be sure that the bag you use is intended for contact with food. Many times bags contain dyes, glues, or other harmful chemicals that may be absorbed by the food.

And of course, I have a post (from my soapbox) about plastic bags and foods.